Difference between revisions of "Git"

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{| class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed wikitable"
{| class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed wikitable"
! Actually update a local branch without checking it out
! Update a branch from remote without checking it out
| A git fetch --all SHOULD DO IT but does NOT, wtf... You can force it with this (to update develop while another branch is checked out):
| Good for when you are rebasing a feature branch.
  git fetch origin develop:develop
  git fetch origin develop:develop
You would think <code>git fetch --all</code> would do it but does not.
{| class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed wikitable"
! Push any branch from bare to origin
| Good for when you are force-pushing a branch rebase.
git push [-f] origin mybranch:mybranch
{| class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed wikitable"
{| class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed wikitable"

Latest revision as of 23:26, 21 March 2020


git new shared central bare repo
On central server (aka bitpost):
cd development(...)
git init --bare --shared mynewthang.git

On development box

cd development(...)
git clone bitpost.com:development/mynewthang.git
# this will create a new empty repo with no branch yet
# create files, then use git to add them, commit them and push them
# that will create remote-tracked master branch for you

Back on bitpost

git clone mynewthang.git # to create a working copy on server, if desired
create shared central repo for existing code
Create a bare repo with .git suffix
git init --bare --shared mything.git

Go to existing code and clone the repo next to it, with a temp name. Move .git into the existing code. Add code, add a .gitignore as needed, and you're all set.

cd mything/..
git clone (bare-repo-host-and-path)mything.git mything-temp
mv mything-temp/.git mything/
rm -rf mything-temp
cd mything
subl .gitignore # as needed
git add (whatever you want to track)
git commit -a -m "init repo" && git push
Set default branch of a bare repo
If you want the default branch of a bare repo to be something other than master:
git branch
 * master
git symbolic-ref HEAD refs/heads/moodboom-quick-http
git branch
 * moodboom-quick-http
Gitflow is awesome, using it myself and everywhere I work these days (2020).
  • Devs work out of develop branch
  • Devs create feature branches off develop for any decent-sized work
  • Once develop is stable and you are ready for a release:
git tag -a -m "#MAJOR#.#MINOR#".0 #MAJOR#.#MINOR#.0
git checkout -b release/release_#MAJOR#.#MINOR#
git push --set-upstream origin release_#MAJOR#.#MINOR#
git checkout master && git merge release/release_#MAJOR#.#MINOR# && git push
git checkout develop # and get back to it!
  • Do hotfixes as needed in release branch, tagged #MAJOR#.#MINOR#.++, merged back into master and develop
Update a branch from remote without checking it out
Good for when you are rebasing a feature branch.
git fetch origin develop:develop

You would think git fetch --all would do it but does not.

Push any branch from bare to origin
Good for when you are force-pushing a branch rebase.
git push [-f] origin mybranch:mybranch
git merging conflicts after diverging
Revert local changes in a file to HEAD
git checkout -- path/to/file.txt

Discard ALL LOCAL COMMITS and get the (possibly diverged) remote instead

git reset --hard origin/master
git create and push a feature branch
This will move recent commits AND uncommitted changes into a new branch (but you probably want to finish by cleaning out commits from starting branch, and repulling after you merge the feature).
git checkout -b feature/whiz-bang

# Do this ONCE: git config --global push.default current
# From then on:
git push -u

# OR, if you don't want the config, you have to be more specific:
# git push -u origin feature/whiz-bang
getting upstream commits into your GitHub fork
From so...

Add the remote, call it something specific:

git remote add someauthor-upstream https://github.com/someauthor/theprojectiforked.git

Fetch all the branches of that remote into remote-tracking branches, such as upstream/master:

git fetch someauthor-upstream

Get on the branch where you are tracking the rebase. Typically your master branch but can be whatever:

git checkout tlsv12 # or master or next or...

Rewrite your branch so that any commits of yours that aren't already in upstream are replayed on top of that other branch (if you do a straight merge instead of rebase you'll screw up the upstream!):

git rebase someauthor-upstream/master

IF the branch that was the target of the rebase existed, force the push in order to push it to your own forked repository on GitHub. You only need to use the -f the first time after you've rebased:

git push -f origin master

ELSE if the branch you merged into is a new creation, set its upstream when you push:

git push --set-upstream origin tlsv12

Now master has the latest commits from the fork origin. You can rebase onto it, if you've been working in a branch (good):

git checkout mybranch
git rebase master
Clone a bare repo (eg github, gitlab, bb) into a bare repo
Say you want a bare repo to be shared by all your dev environments, but you need to push/pull THAT from a central bare repo, too.
git clone --bare --shared git@bitbucket.org:equityshift/es-demo.git
cd es-demo.git
git config remote.origin.fetch "+*:*"
git fetch --all

I was surprised that this was difficult at all, and may still have some lessons to learn...

git create new branch on server, pull to client
git checkout master # as needed; we are assuming that master is clean enough as a starting point
git checkout -b mynewbranchy

# HOWEVER, use this instead if you need a new "clean" repo and even master is dirty...
# You need the rm because git "leaves your working folder intact".
git checkout --orphan mynewbranchy
git rm -rf .

git pull
git checkout -b mynewbranchy origin/mynewbranchy
# if files are in the way from the previously checked-out branch, you can force it...
git checkout -f -b mynewbranchy origin/mynewbranchy
git remove old branches
Explanation is here.


git push origin --delete <branch>


git branch -d <branch>
git fetch <remote> --prune # Delete multiple obsolete tracking branches
Work with two local repos
Set up a remote, then fetch it as master.
cd repoToChange
git remote add otherplace ../../wherever/../gitrepo
git ls-remote otherplace # verify it looks ok, figure out which branch you like (if not master)
git fetch otherplace # gets it all
git checkout --track otherplace/master # or other branch as needed; this creates the branch and sets remote in one step, cool

Set up a remote, then fetch it into a non-master branch, and push it to the active origin.

cd repoToChange
git remote add otherplace ../../wherever/../gitrepo
git ls-remote otherplace # verify it looks ok, figure out which branch you like (if not master)
git fetch otherplace # gets it all
git checkout otherplace/master # creates it detached, good because we need to name the new branch something other than master
git checkout -b new_otherplace_branchname # creates new local branch with a good name
git push --set-upstream origin new_otherplace_branchname # takes the branch from the OLD origin and pushes it to the ACTIVE origin, cool!
git pull when untracked files are in the way
This will pull, forcing untracked files to be overwritten by newly tracked ones in the repo:
git fetch --all
git reset --hard origin/mymatchingbranch
git create new branch when untracked files are in the way
  git checkout -b bj143 origin/bj143
     git : error: The following untracked working tree files would be overwritten by checkout:
  TOTAL PURGE FIX (too much):
     git clean  -d  -fn ""
        -d dirs too
        -f force, required
        -x include ignored files (don't use this)
        -n dry run
  BEST FIX (just overwrite what is in the way):
     git checkout -f -b bj143 origin/bj143
git recreate repo
git clone ssh://m@thedigitalmachine.com/home/m/development/thedigitalage/ampache-with-hangthedj-module
cd ampache-with-hangthedj-module
git checkout -b daily_grind origin/daily_grind

If you already have the daily_grind branches and just need to connect them:

git branch -u origin/daily_grind daily_grind
git connect to origin after the fact
git remote add origin ssh:// m@bitpost.com/home/m/development/logs
git fetch
    From ssh:// bitpost/home/m/development/logs
     * [new branch]      daily_grind -> origin/daily_grind
     * [new branch]      master     -> origin/master
git branch -u origin/daily_grind daily_grind
git checkout master
git branch -u origin/master master
git ignore local and remote changes to a file
This is helpful for conf files that need local-specific modifications that shouldn't be pushed. You have to toggle it on/off as needed to get updates! See my SO answer.
       git update-index --skip-worktree apps/views/_partials/jsIncludes.scala.html

       git update-index --no-skip-worktree apps/views/_partials/jsIncludes.scala.html

       git ls-files -v . | grep ^S
       S app/views/_partials/jsIncludes.scala.html
git changing branches in a project with submodules
# always reset the @*$ submodules to proper commits
git checkout develop && git submodule update
git hard-reset a misbehaving submodule to parent commit version
git submodule deinit -f .
git submodule update --init


git visual difftool and mergetool setup
Meld is purdy, let's kick its tires. Hope it actually works...
git config --global diff.tool meld
git config --global merge.tool meld
git config --global --add difftool.prompt false

I used to set up kdiff3 manually, like this... (gross)

  • LINUX - put this in ~/.gitconfig
    tool = kdiff3

    tool = kdiff3
[difftool "kdiff3"]
    path = C:/Progra~1/KDiff3/kdiff3.exe
    trustExitCode = false
    prompt = false
    tool = kdiff3
[mergetool "kdiff3"]
    path = C:/Progra~1/KDiff3/kdiff3.exe
    trustExitCode = false
    keepBackup = false
    tool = kdiff3
  • LINUX Before - What a ridiculous pita... copy this into .git/config...
[difftool "kdiff3"]
    path = /usr/bin/kdiff3
    trustExitCode = false
    prompt = false
    tool = kdiff3
[mergetool "kdiff3"]
    path = /usr/bin/kdiff3
    trustExitCode = false
    keepBackup = false
    tool = kdiff3
git convert to a bare repo
Start with a normal git repo via [git init]; add your files, get it all set up. Then do this:
cd repo

Now you can copy-paste this...

mv .git .. && rm -fr *
mv ../.git .
mv .git/* .
rmdir .git
git config --bool core.bare true
cd ..

Don't copy/paste these, you need to change repo name...

mv repo repo.git # rename it for clarity
git clone repo.git # (optional, if you want a live repo on the server where you have the bare repo)

Then you can clean up old branches like daily and daily_grind, as needed.

git convert bare to a mirror of remote (github, facebook, etc)
You need a bare mirror repo if you want to take someone else's repo and create your own bare to work from.

If you did NOT specify --mirror when you first created the bare repo, you can convert to a mirror by adding these last two lines to config, underneath url:

[remote "origin"]
   url = git@github.com:facebook/proxygen.git
   fetch = +refs/*:refs/*
   mirror = true

Now you can fetch from the bare repo:

git fetch
git create merge-to command
Add this handy alias command to all git repos' .config file...
    merge-to = "!gitmergeto() { export tmp_branch=`git branch | grep '* ' | tr -d '* '` && git checkout $1 && git merge $tmp_branch && git checkout $tmp_branch; unset tmp_branch; }; gitmergeto"

git fix github diverge from local bare repo following README.md edit
Yes editing the README.md file on github will FUCK UP your downstream bare repo if you meanwhile push to it before pulling.

Fixing it is a PAIN in the ASS, you have to create a new local repo and pull github into that, pull in from your other local repo, push to github, pull to your bare...

git clone git@github.com:moodboom/quick-http.git quick-http-with-readme-conflict
git remote add local ../quick-http
git fetch local
git merge local/master # merge in changes, likely trivial
git push # pushes back to github
cd ..
mv quick-http.git quick-http.git__gone-out-of-sync-fu-github-readme-editor
git clone git@github.com:moodboom/quick-http.git --bare
cp quick-http.git__gone-out-of-sync-fu-github-readme-editor/config quick-http.git/

And that MIGHT get you on your way... but I would no longer trust ANY of your local repos... This is a serious pita.

git windows configure notepad++ editor
git config --global core.editor "'C:/Program Files (x86)/Notepad++/notepad++.exe' -multiInst -notabbar -nosession -noPlugin"
git fix push behavior - ONLY PUSH CURRENT doh
git config --global push.default current
git multiple upstreams
Use this to cause AUTOMATIC push/pull to a second origin:
git remote set-url origin --push --add user1@repo1
git remote set-url origin --push --add user2@repo2
git remote -v show

Leave out --push if you want to pull as well... but I'd be careful, it's better if code is changed in one client with this config, and then pushed to the multiple origins from there. Otherwise, things are GOING TO GET SYNCY-STINKY.

From here... Git for nice release planning.png